It’s Perfectly Constitutional to Talk About Jury Nullification

Eric Patrick Brandt and Mark Iannicelli were handing out pamphlets outside a Denver courthouse in July 2015. They wanted to inform the public about jury nullification — that is, the power of jurors to vote against convicting criminal defendants under laws that the jurors believe are unjust.

Brandt and Iannicelli were trying to participate in a centuries-old and still-thriving discussion. The pamphlets they were handing out included statements such as:

  • “Juror nullification is your right to refuse to enforce bad laws and bad prosecutions.”
  • “Once you know your rights and powers, you can veto bad laws and hang the jury.”
  • “So, when it’s your turn to serve, be aware: 1. You may, and should, vote your conscience; 2. You cannot be forced to obey a ‘juror’s oath’; 3. You have the right to ‘hang’ the jury with your vote if you cannot agree with other jurors.”

But the two activists’ attempts to educate the public led to their arrest. Brandt and Iannicelli were each charged with seven counts of criminal jury tampering under a Colorado law that bars any person from communicating with a juror with the intent to influence the juror’s vote in a case.

On Tuesday, we filed a friend-of-the-court brief in the Colorado Supreme Court arguing that the application of the jury tampering law to Brandt and Iannicelli’s pamphleting is an unconstitutional restraint of speech.

The most essential function of the First Amendment right to free speech is to protect discussion and debate over government affairs and public issues. From access to effective counsel to the selective enforcement of criminal laws, the criminal justice system and the way criminal trials are conducted are quintessential matters of public concern.

The role and power of juries, in particular, have been subjects of debate and discussion since before the founding of the republic. English courts first recognized the jury’s power to acquit a criminal defendant — even when the weight of the evidence points to the defendant’s guilt — in 1670. Juries in colonial America used jury nullification to protest the power of the British Parliament over the colonies, and Alexander Hamilton, John Adams, and prominent judges in the early days of the nation all believed that jurors had a duty to vote their conscience regardless of the evidence.

Important discussions about jury nullification aren’t limited to lawyers and scholars. Different views about the topic have popped up in popular articles, podcasts, lifestyle blogs, and advice columns. This isn’t surprising: Jury service is the most intimate interaction with the criminal justice system that many people ever experience, and many individuals completing jury duty may find themselves in the difficult position of having to apply a law that they believe is unfair or immoral.

Nullification often occurs today where people are prosecuted under draconian drug laws for low-level drug offenses or face harsh mandatory sentences. Historically, jurors have acquitted against the weight of the evidence in cases against Vietnam War protesters charged with destroying draft files and in Fugitive Slave Act prosecutions against escaped slaves and individuals who aided them.

Of course, the state can and should prevent individuals from intentionally tampering with a jury in the hopes of influencing the outcome of a specific case. But far from trying to tamper with any particular case, Brandt and Iannicelli sought to educate all jurors — including potential jurors — about the concept of jury nullification. Courts have recognized that such advocacy is protected by the First Amendment.

Troublingly, the government’s argument that Brandt’s and Iannicelli’s speech was criminal jury tampering could extend to almost any statement advocating jury nullification that a juror might see, from a newspaper op-ed to a tweet.

The government may prefer a jury pool that has never heard about jury nullification. The Constitution, however, prohibits the government from banning speech that it doesn’t like. The public benefits when ideas — good or bad — are aired out. We all suffer when they’re criminalized into silence.

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Anonymous

Some people think its immoral to prosecute someone for having sex with children. Others think its immoral to prosecute someone for crimes against black people, women, Jews, Muslims, suspected lizard peopke, and etc. Many people are incredibly good at justifying pretty much anything their relatives and friends do so think any attempt to hold them accountable is immoral. If juries can pick and choose what laws people can break without consequences a lot of people will be getting away with hate crimes and all organized crime organizations would have to do to get their people off would be to stack the jury with people who share their morals which probably aren't the same as your morals or mine.

Anonymous

Is this still ongoing? I looked it up and it looks like both the original judge and the appeals court one ruled that handing out the pamphlets was not jury tampering because they weren't trying to influence a particular case. I didn't see anything about the case being appealled any higher. Citing the court case would be incredibly helpful, though.

Anonymous

And why can judges lie to juries about the awesome power a jury has in their verdict?

Anonymous

the jury power is to follow the law and the evidence when rendering a verdict.
the jury has NO right to ignore the law because they feel like it.

Anonymous

In your section on the historical examples of jury nullification, you forgot to mention when it was used by all-white Southern juries to acquit lynchers and murderers.

Nighthawk

Since when do State judges do anything that's "perfectly constitutional"??

Anonymous

But once you're on a jury, your vote to nullify must be kept confidential. If it is openly stated, the judge can dismiss you and bring in an alternate.

Good to keep in mind

Anonymous

Only those without power have a need for jury nullification. Those in power will seldom meet a jury.

Liv

It seems that today’s brand of jurors is badly tainting constitutional rights by overlaying their personal and political views of those rights. They act with an astounding audacity and bias, in their effort to bend the Constituion to their will. This is just one more outrage, as the courts continue to be salted and assaulted by the far right. The ACLU can and should support all of these acts of bias and continue to fight for our constitutional rights

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