The Incarceration of Japanese-Americans 75 Years Ago Reminds Us That Our Freedoms Are Fragile

This article was originally published by Smithsonian.

Seventy-five years ago, President Franklin Roosevelt issued Executive Order 9066. While the order avoided naming any particular ethnic group, the president and his advisers intended it to target Japanese-Americans. Military officials “evacuated” Americans of Japanese ancestry to “relocation centers.” One hundred and twenty thousand men, women, and children had just days to divest themselves of all they owned — their homes, farms, and businesses — and take only what they could carry to far-flung prison camps from Arkansas to California. For years afterward, people like my grandmother Bette Takei (née Sato), were forced to live behind barbed wire, under the gaze of armed guards.

Grandma was 23 years old. She'd grown up in Walnut Grove, a small rural Japantown in California, with aspirations of becoming a fashion designer. She attended junior college in Sacramento, but her ambitions were thwarted when she was forced into the euphemistically named Tule Lake War Relocation Center. Armed guards patrolled this prison camp, which was completely enclosed by barbed-wire fences. Dust and fine grit constantly blew through the walls of the hastily constructed barracks, and — in a shock to her modesty — the toilets and shower stalls in the communal latrines stretched in long, open rows with no dividers.

She briefly escaped by marrying my grandfather Kuichi "Jim" Takei, a 30-year-old sergeant who had been drafted into the U.S. Army before Pearl Harbor and — despite being reclassified as an "enemy" for his Japanese ancestry — instructed to remain in the service. They had met only once before the war, but Bette began a correspondence with Kuichi. When she suggested marriage in mid-1943, he was surprised and flattered — and accepted her proposal.

Kuichi was stationed at an army base in Mississippi, and Bette obtained authorization to leave the prison camp to get married to Kuichi there. For several months, they lived together in a cramped house with multiple other newlywed military couples. But at the end of the year, he was ordered to deploy to Europe in a racially segregated artillery unit. He took with him a 1000-stitch belt, or senninbari, that his mother had sewn him for good luck, which is now part of the Smithsonian's collection. His battalion was among those that liberated survivors of the Nazi death camp at Dachau.

After Kuichi deployed, Bette returned to be incarcerated with her parents and siblings, who had by then been transferred to another prison camp in Colorado. So, while Kuichi fought for the allies in Europe, my grandmother Bette waited for him in an American version of a concentration camp. (Note: Language matters when talking about the experiences of Japanese-Americans during World War II. The author prefers to use the phrase "concentration camp" here. Learn more about the language of incarceration in the Smithsonian’s online exhibition.)

The War Department justified the action as being a "military necessity." These officials claimed that Japanese-Americans had deliberately settled "adjacent to strategic points" and were using radios to send covert signals to Japanese navy ships. They continued making these claims even after the FBI, Federal Communications Commission, and Office of Naval Intelligence investigated and debunked them. A bipartisan federal commission concluded years later that the prison camps had no military purpose and had been borne of "race prejudice, war hysteria and a failure of political leadership."

Executive Order 9066 was not just a product of immediate wartime panic. It was also enabled by years of virulent, systematic racism against Asian-Americans. As a child, my grandmother attended racially segregated schools because officials prohibited children of Japanese descent from attending the same schools as white children. For decades, federal officials had targeted Chinese and Japanese immigrants with discriminatory immigration controls and conducted surveillance of their communities. And many newspapers encouraged anti-Japanese sentiment by falsely portraying these immigrants as dangerous criminals.

After the attack on Pearl Harbor, people with high positions in government swiftly acted on these sentiments. This included Lt. General John L. DeWitt, who famously declared that "a Jap's a Jap" regardless of U.S. citizenship, and Colonel Karl Bendetsen, who insisted along with DeWitt that the absence of evidence against Japanese-Americans was reason to suspect them of wrongdoing:

"The very fact that no sabotage has taken place to date is a disturbing and confirming indication that such action will be taken."

These individuals used their positions to convince the president and the War Department to begin a mass roundup of Japanese-American communities. When cases challenging the roundup and incarceration finally reached the U.S. Supreme Court, the high court relied on DeWitt's and Bendetsen's lies and misinformation to uphold the government's actions as constitutional.

Years later, that Supreme Court decision, Korematsu v. United States, came to be almost universally regarded as a stain on American jurisprudence, and in 1988, President Ronald Reagan signed legislation apologizing for and granting reparations to the survivors of the World War II incarceration. The damage, however, had been done. As President George H.W. Bush wrote in his apology letter to my grandparents, "We can never fully right the wrongs of the past. But we can take a clear stand for justice."

That letter hangs on the wall of my parents' house. It reminds us that our freedoms are fragile.

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Germans Too

A great example of paranoia by one group of people on another. Don't forget German Americans were incarcerated at an equal rate during the war.

My grandfather was a first generation American-German who loved his family and loved making beer. Unfortunately the major beer maker in town didn't like the popularity of his beer and had the local police deport him to the German POW camp in seagoville Texas. He did nothing wrong but love America and make beer. But instead was imprisioned with known Nazis. He was beat by other prisoners because he hated Hitler. You don't here these stories because corporations, local government, and the federal government cover it up. Thanks to Wikileaks and other declassified sources that tell his story.


NO you are flat out wrong German and Italian Americans were NOT locked away at in equal rate with the Japanese!! Only ones that were locked up were persons under suspicion, had direct ties with Germany via immediate relatives or via work and those that only had visa's or passports etc in all less than 15k. Compared with 12000 or ALL the Japaneses Americans in the western US (were the vast majority lived) my entire family here in the US were in the camps both my parents, their siblings ,my grand parents and other family. Four of my uncles served with the 100th and 442nd 3 earned purple hearts. By the way what segregated unit did German Americans belong to? Oh wait there wasn't one... As only us Jap citizens had to prove our effing loyalty.. Its a wonder why my parents and the other Japanese Americans decided to stay in this country...

Anyway I hear this nonsense from a lot of (Caucasian) Americans "Oh well Germans and Italians were locked up as well. BS! The vast majority of German and Italian Americans did NOT suffer the same fate of Japanese Americans you are flat out over exaggerating the numbers and or lying just to make lite of what Japanese Americans went thru my family lost their homes, bushiness and all their assets etc. At the end of war all they had was whatever they had in the camps and a measly $20k apology (more like a big F-U) back in 1988 which btw a lot of Americans (non Japanese of course ) did not want to do. Pardon if I sound pissed but hey unless you are Asian in this country you wont know dick about how many of us feel


"Germans too" is the type of nonsense that people trot out when they say "The Irish were slaves too." Would you tell someone that has cancer, "I have Diabetes too!" Perhaps 11,000 German Americans were incarcerated. Between 110,000-120,000 Japanese Americans were incarcerated. Next time Jewish people mention the Holocaust, tell them, "The Armenians were victims of Genocide too!"


Whatever. In your view only "minorities" or non- European Caucasians are the only victims in the world. Get a clue dude, We are all on this planet together and equally. All humans of all races have been "victims" at one point in time or another. The point is to end suffering and enforce rights for all, not just one group of people.

I would tell someone that has cancer is "I don't feel "sorry" for you!" Point blank. You got diabetes, so what! You got gout, so what! Life sucks and is painful. Go get treatment or die. Or get treatment and die anyway. Harsh but that's life on this rock. Just enjoy every moment you have before God smokes ur ass.

Yes Armenians

Uh duh, 1.5 million Armenians died by holocaust. So yeah, Armenians suffered too. So have Bosnians, south Sudanese, and almost any other "racial" or geopolitical group in history.

No the Japanese are not "special", they are victims just as everyone else fro this type of behavior.

German Girl

Maybe only 11,000 were imprisoned, but where they less human than anyone else?

Don't forget

Don't forget the millions of African Americans in prison "camps" today. Everyday the authorities collect more and more blacks for slave prison camp labor. It is a curious situation since a majority of prison guards in many areas are African Americans. Slaves holding slaves. Yessum boss man!


Dear "whatever", I'm a Jew. When I talk about the Holocaust I include the 6 million non-Jewish innocents that lost their lives. Each unjustly imprisoned person matters as much as the next.


It isn't a contest where the group who had the most individuals denied their rights are more deserving of our shame. Even one person being denied his or her rights is a threat to all of us. Whether it's 11,000 Germans, 120,000 Japanese or one poor person denied representation, if we allow anyone's rights to be abridged we better look over our shoulder for eventually they will come for us.


Technically since Armenia border the Caucasus mountains they would be Caucasian. Know your history and geography before you try to sit at the grown up table "whatever"


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