Student Rights at School: Six Things You Need To Know

While the Constitution protects the rights of students at school, many school officials are unaware of students’ legal protections, or simply ignore them.

When heading back to school this year, make sure to know your rights and ensure that your school treats every student fairly and equally. The ACLU has a long tradition of fighting to protect students’ rights, and is always ready to speak with you on a confidential basis. If you believe that your rights have been violated, don’t hesitate to contact your local ACLU affiliate.

Here are six things you need to know about your rights at school: 

1. Speech rights

In the landmark Supreme Court case Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School District (1969), the ACLU successfully challenged a school district’s decision to suspend three students for wearing armbands in protest of the Vietnam War. The court declared that students and teachers do not “shed their constitutional rights to freedom of speech or expression at the schoolhouse gate.”

The First Amendment ensures that students cannot be punished for exercising free speech rights, even if school administrators don’t approve of what they are saying. Unfortunately, where legal protections are weak, schools are threatening student’s speech – and their privacy – by requiring them to reveal the contents of their social media accounts, cell phones, laptops, and other personal technologies. The ACLU is fighting for new state laws around the country that would provide stronger student privacy protections.

Over the years, the ACLU has successfully defended the right of students to wear an anti-abortion armband, a pro-LGBT t-shirt, and shirts critical of political figures. The ACLU has even defended the rights of high school students who wanted to protest the ACLU.

Contact the ACLU if you believe your school is trying to limit your First Amendment rights.

2. Dress codes

While schools are allowed to establish dress codes, students have a right to express themselves.

Dress codes are all too often used to target and shame girls, force students to conform to gender stereotypes and punish students who wear political and countercultural messages. Such policies can be used as cover for racial discrimination, by targeting students of color over supposed “gang” symbols or punishing students for wearing natural hairstyles and hair extensions. Dress codes can also infringe on a student’s religious rights by barring rosaries, headscarves and other religious symbols.

Schools must make the case that a certain kind of dress is disruptive to school activities. They cannot use dress codes to punish girls, people of color, transgender and gender non-conforming students and free speech.

If you are told to comply with a dress code that you believe is discriminatory, contact the ACLU. Complying with the dress code will not prevent you from challenging it at a later date.

3. Immigrant rights

Schools cannot discriminate against students on the basis of race, color, national origin. Undocumented children cannot be denied their right to a free public education, but some schools continue to create exclusionary policies. Last year, the ACLU sued several school districts for requiring families to prove their immigration status in order to enroll their children in school.

Students with limited English proficiency cannot be turned away by schools, which must provide them with language instruction.

Contact the ACLU’s Immigrants’ Rights Project if you have observed or experienced discrimination based on immigration status or national origin in school.

4. Disability rights

Public schools are prohibited by federal law from discriminating against people with disabilities, and cannot deny them equal access to academic courses, field trips, extracurricular activities, school technology, and health services.

Sometimes, educators and administrators discriminate by refusing to make necessary medical accommodations, restricting access to educational activities and opportunities, ignoring harassment and bullying, and failing to train staff on compliance with state and federal laws.

Schools have a duty to defend students with disabilities from bullying and biased treatment, and the ACLU is working to ensure that the rights of these students are protected.

5. LGBT rights

Bullying of LGBT students can be pervasive at schools, and is all too often ignored or encouraged by the schools themselves. LGBT students have a right to be who they are and express themselves at school. Students have a right to be out of the closet at school, and schools cannot skirt their responsibility to create a safe learning environment and address incidents of harassment.

Public schools are not allowed to threaten to “out” students to their families, overlook bullying, force students to wear clothing inconsistent with their gender identity or bar LGBT-themed clubs or attire. Transgender and gender non-conforming students often face hostile environments in which school officials refuse to refer to students by their preferred gender pronouns or provide access to appropriate bathroom and locker room facilities.

If you find that your school is undermining your rights, contact your local ACLU affiliate or the ACLU LGBT Project. Be sure to report incidents of bullying or bias to a school principal or counselor and remember to keep detailed notes of your interactions with officials and make copies of any paperwork that the school asks you to fill out.

6. Pregnancy discrimination 

Since Title IX, the federal law barring sex discrimination in education, was passed in 1972, schools have been prohibited from excluding pregnant students and students with children. Yet schools often push such students to drop out by making it impossible to complete classwork, preventing them from participating in extracurricular activities, refusing to accommodate schedule adjustments, punishing them with unwarranted disciplinary actions, and pressuring them to transfer or quit school altogether.

Denying these students an education, access to school activities and reasonable accommodations violates their rights. Public schools must ensure that pregnant students have access to the same accommodations that students with temporary medical conditions are given, including the ability to make up missed classwork and learn in a safe, nonjudgmental environment. Schools are also not allowed to punish students who choose to terminate a pregnancy or reveal a student’s private medical information.

If you believe that your school is treating you unfairly for being pregnant, ending a pregnancy, or having a child, contact the ACLU’s Women’s Rights Project.

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Do private or charter schools have to abide by these?


One would think so, since those schools should not have any more rights to suppress freedom of expression than a public school


right now yes. But the Betsy DeVos has indicated that she doesn't believe they should. Might get bumpy for all of us if she figures out how to actually do the things she has said she wants to do. Let's all pray her lack of real work work experience prohibits her from doing more than redecorating her new office.


Truth rejects your attempts here to incite. It's why the 1st Amendment is the First Amendment. Weaponized words need to be called out - like screaming "fire" in a crowded theater.


Claiming that the ACLU is propaganda implies that anyone who expresses anything is using propaganda. The ACLU has liberties in its name and so, yes it presses toward a liberal (same root) agenda of enlightenment notions of the benefit of free speech. SeeJS Milton's "Aeropagetica."


Please provide a abbreviated version than I print in bullet form and can distribute in my class.


I remember in 1969 when an obviously pregnant girl was present in my high school. It was the result of an emotional good-bye to a young man going to Vietnam. The girl laid down the law: no one was to tell the soldier. The girl wanted him concentrating on coming back alive; they could deal with the baby when he returned. She was sensible & mature.

We girls all wore jeans to school. There were too many of us for the school to do anything.

Some schools or school systems mandate uniforms. The poor kids dress the same as the rich kids. There are benefits as long as the uniform isn't something from years ago. If the school system purchases & sells the uniforms, they can be affordable for most parents or kids.

Searching lockers was banned at one point, but I don't know what the deal is now. Searching purses or backpacks? I'd probably walk out.

I carried a pound of weed into school one day & dropped it in front of someone else's locker. (Weed was cheap & it wasn't mine. I looked really innocent so I was safe. It was not my problem once I dropped it.) Lockers were off limits to school administration. I think they still managed to get busted, but they weren't very bright.

High school students must learn to take responsibility for their actions. I had classmates who were married & most of my friends & I were emotionally independent. Some were legally emancipated. Our parents rarely noticed if we went to school or came home at night. High school students need to learn independence.

Life moves fast. Take responsibility for yourself & your actions. Bullies? One disciplinary action then permanent expulsion. Girls can be

Deb cg

What about privacy...don't "out" students with wrong answers


Civil liberties and compulsory schooling don't mix. You can't teach freedom by taking it away, and pretending you can is just hypocrisy.


what about me wearing a hijab to school? im buddhsit and id like to start covering my hair with a hijab-like head scarf. also, last year i got into a quarrel with a teacher if it was my right to sit down during the national anthem, what are my rights regarding that?


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