Felony Disenfranchisement Laws (Map)

A patchwork of state felony disfranchisement laws, varying in severity from state to state, prevent approximately 5.85 million Americans with felony (and in several states misdemeanor) convictions from voting. Confusion about and misapplication of these laws de facto disenfranchise countless other Americans.

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Iowa

All people with felony convictions are permanently disenfranchised.

All people with felony convictions are permanently disenfranchised.

Wyoming

Some people with felony convictions cannot vote.

First-time felony offenders convicted of non-violent offenses may submit a written request for automatic restoration of voting rights upon completion of sentence, including probation and parole. 

All others convicted of felonies cannot vote unless pardoned.

http://www.ncsl.org/research/elections-and-campaigns/felon-voting-rights.aspx
http://ccresourcecenter.org/state-restoration-profiles/wyomingrestoration-of-rights-pardon-expungement-sealing

Washington State

People with felony convictions can vote upon completion of sentence.

People with felony convictions can vote upon completion of sentence.

New York

People in prison and on parole cannot vote. All other people with criminal convictions, including people on probation, can vote.

In 2018, Governor Cuomo issued an executive order to restore voting rights to those on parole.

https://www.governor.ny.gov/news/governor-cuomo-signs-executive-order-restore-voting-rights-new-yorkers-parole.

Colorado

People in prison cannot vote. Everyone else can vote.

People in prison cannot vote. Everyone else can vote.

Maine

Everyone has the right to vote.

Everyone has the right to vote.

Nevada

People in prison cannot vote. Everyone else can vote.

People in prison cannot vote. Everyone else can vote.

Oregon

People in prison cannot vote. Everyone else can vote.

People in prison cannot vote. Everyone else can vote.

Montana

People in prison cannot vote. Everyone else can vote.

People in prison cannot vote. Everyone else can vote.

North Dakota

People in prison cannot vote. Everyone else can vote.

People in prison cannot vote. Everyone else can vote.

Utah

People in prison cannot vote. Everyone else can vote.

People in prison cannot vote. Everyone else can vote.

Hawaii

People in prison cannot vote. Everyone else can vote.

People in prison cannot vote. Everyone else can vote.

Michigan

People in prison cannot vote. Everyone else can vote.

People in prison cannot vote. Everyone else can vote.

Illinois

People in prison cannot vote. Everyone else can vote.

People in prison cannot vote. Everyone else can vote.

Indiana

People in prison cannot vote. Everyone else can vote.

People in prison cannot vote. Everyone else can vote.

Ohio

People in prison cannot vote. Everyone else can vote.

People in prison cannot vote. Everyone else can vote.

Pennsylvania

People in prison cannot vote. Everyone else can vote.

People in prison cannot vote. Everyone else can vote.

Maryland

People in prison cannot vote. Everyone else can vote.

People in prison cannot vote. Everyone else can vote.

New Hampshire

People in prison cannot vote. Everyone else can vote.

People in prison cannot vote. Everyone else can vote.

Massachusetts

People in prison cannot vote. Everyone else can vote.

People in prison cannot vote. Everyone else can vote.

Rhode Island

People in prison cannot vote. Everyone else can vote.

People in prison cannot vote. Everyone else can vote.

Arizona

Some people with felony convictions cannot vote.

First-time felony offenders (other than firearms-related offenses) have voting rights restored automatically upon completion of sentence, including probation, or an unconditional discharge, and payment of restitutions.

Persons previously convicted of another felony, or who have not paid restitution, cannot vote unless their civil rights are restored by the judge who discharges them at the end of the term of probation, or unless they submit a successful petition to a court to restore their rights.

http://www.ncsl.org/research/elections-and-campaigns/felon-voting-rights.aspx
http://ccresourcecenter.org/state-restoration-profiles/arizona-restoration-of-rights-pardon-expungement-sealing/#I_Loss_restoration_of_civilfirearms_rights

Tennessee

Some people with felony convictions cannot vote.

Those convicted of murder, rape, treason, or voter fraud are permanently disenfranchised, absent a pardon.

For those convicted of other felonies, a “certificate of restoration” may be obtained from prison authorities or from the Board of Probation and Parole.  Applicants must have paid all court-ordered fines, fees and restitution and, if applicable, must be current in child support payments.  

http://www.ncsl.org/research/elections-and-campaigns/felon-voting-rights.aspx
http://ccresourcecenter.org/state-restoration-profiles/tennessee-restoration-of-rights-pardon-expungement-sealing/

Mississippi

Some people with felony convictions cannot vote.

Persons convicted of the following felonies cannot vote unless they are pardoned by the governor, or by a two-thirds vote of both houses of the legislature: murder, rape, bribery, theft, arson, obtaining money or goods under false pretense, perjury, forgery, embezzlement or bigamy.

http://www.ncsl.org/research/elections-and-campaigns/felon-voting-rights.aspx

Alabama

Some people with felony convictions cannot vote.

All who have committed one of 46 crimes of “moral turpitude” lose their right to vote. Most in these categories can apply for a Certificate of Eligibility to Register to Vote (CERV) through an expedited process, but some will require a full pardon.

https://www.aclualabama.org/en/voting-rights-restoration.

Florida

Some people with felony convictions cannot vote.

Those convicted of murder or a felony sexual offense cannot vote and must still apply to the governor for restoration.

Those convicted of other offenses have their voting rights automatically restored upon completion of their sentences (including parole and probation). In 2019, the Governor DeSantis signed a law defining “completion of sentence” to include full payment of restitution and fees. This change is subject to ongoing litigation.  

Kentucky

All people with felony convictions are permanently disenfranchised.

In December 2019,  Governor Beshear signed an executive order restoring the right to vote for more than 140,000 Kentuckians who have completed their sentences for nonviolent felonies (other than treason or election bribery related convictions). Those not meeting these criteria, or convicted of federal felonies, or felonies in other states, may still petition for restoration from the Governor.

https://governor.ky.gov/attachments/20191212_Executive-Order_2019-003.pdf

Virginia

All people with felony convictions are permanently disenfranchised.

Beginning in 2016, then-Governor McAuliffe has processed individual restorations on a monthly basis, automatically restoring voting rights to those convicted of felonies who have completed their sentences.  The current Governor has continued this practice.

California

People in prison and on parole cannot vote. All other people with criminal convictions, including people on probation, can vote.

People in prison and on parole cannot vote. All other people with criminal convictions, including people on probation, can vote.

Connecticut

People in prison and on parole cannot vote. All other people with criminal convictions, including people on probation, can vote.

People in prison and on parole cannot vote. All other people with criminal convictions, including people on probation, can vote.

Vermont

Everyone has the right to vote.

Everyone has the right to vote.

South Dakota

People with felony convictions can vote upon completion of sentence.

People with felony convictions can vote upon completion of sentence.

Idaho

People with felony convictions can vote upon completion of sentence.

People with felony convictions can vote upon completion of sentence.

Nebraska

People with felony convictions can vote upon completion of sentence.

People with felony convictions can vote upon completion of sentence.

Kansas

People with felony convictions can vote upon completion of sentence.

People with felony convictions can vote upon completion of sentence.

New Mexico

People with felony convictions can vote upon completion of sentence.

People with felony convictions can vote upon completion of sentence.

Texas

People with felony convictions can vote upon completion of sentence.

People with felony convictions can vote upon completion of sentence.

Oklahoma

People with felony convictions can vote upon completion of sentence.

People with felony convictions can vote upon completion of sentence.

Minnesota

People with felony convictions can vote upon completion of sentence.

People with felony convictions can vote upon completion of sentence.

Missouri

People with felony convictions can vote upon completion of sentence.

People with felony convictions can vote upon completion of sentence.

Arkansas

People with felony convictions can vote upon completion of sentence.

People with felony convictions can vote upon completion of sentence.

Louisiana

People with felony convictions can vote upon completion of sentence.

People with felony convictions can vote upon completion of sentence.

Alaska

People with felony convictions can vote upon completion of sentence.

People with felony convictions can vote upon completion of sentence.

Georgia

People with felony convictions can vote upon completion of sentence.

People with felony convictions can vote upon completion of sentence.

South Carolina

People with felony convictions can vote upon completion of sentence.

People with felony convictions can vote upon completion of sentence.

North Carolina

People with felony convictions can vote upon completion of sentence.

People with felony convictions can vote upon completion of sentence.

West Virginia

People with felony convictions can vote upon completion of sentence.

People with felony convictions can vote upon completion of sentence.

Wisconsin

People with felony convictions can vote upon completion of sentence.

People with felony convictions can vote upon completion of sentence.

New Jersey

People in prison cannot vote. Everyone else can vote.

People with felony convictions can vote upon completion of sentence.

Delaware

People with felony convictions can vote upon completion of sentence.

People with felony convictions can vote upon completion of sentence.

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