America's Addiction to Juvenile Incarceration: State by State

On any given day, nearly 60,000 youth under age 18 are incarcerated in juvenile jails and prisons in the United States. For each state, this map shows the number of youth incarcerated per 100,000 people. These rates vary widely. But in every state, confining young people – cutting them off from their families, disrupting their educations, and often exposing them to further trauma and violence – harms their development and has lifelong negative consequences.

By clicking on a state, you’ll find additional statistics, such as the total number of youth incarcerated and whether this number increased or decreased between 1997 and 2013. You’ll also see a breakdown of the state’s racial and ethnic disparities in youth incarceration, as well as the age at which the state automatically prosecutes a young person as an adult.

Click any highlighted state to learn more
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Alaska

226-300 per 100,000 Youth Incarceration Rate

Number of Youth in Juvenile Facilities (2013):
195

Change in Youth Incarceration Rate (1997-2013):
Down 44%

Ratio of Rates of Youth of Color to White Youth in Custody (2011):
3.6 to 1

Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (2013):
0

Change in Number of Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (1998-2013)
Down 100%

Age of Criminal Responsibility:
18

Alabama

151-225 per 100,000 Youth Incarceration Rate

Number of Youth in Juvenile Facilities (2013):
810

Change in Youth Incarceration Rate (1997-2013):
Down 52%

Ratio of Rates of Youth of Color to White Youth in Custody (2011):
2.5 to 1

Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (2013):
41

Change in Number of Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (1998-2013)
Down 61%

Age of Criminal Responsibility:
18

Arkansas

151-225 per 100,000 Youth Incarceration Rate

Number of Youth in Juvenile Facilities (2013):
579

Change in Youth Incarceration Rate (1997-2013):
Down 4%

Ratio of Rates of Youth of Color to White Youth in Custody (2011):
2.5 to 1

Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (2013):
14

Change in Number of Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (1998-2013)
Down 51%

Age of Criminal Responsibility:
18

Arizona

76-150 per 100,000 Youth Incarceration Rate

Number of Youth in Juvenile Facilities (2013):
840

Change in Youth Incarceration Rate (1997-2013):
Down 55%

Ratio of Rates of Youth of Color to White Youth in Custody (2011):
1.8 to 1

Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (2013):
58

Change in Number of Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (1998-2013)
Down 59%

Age of Criminal Responsibility:
18

California

226-300 per 100,000 Youth Incarceration Rate

Number of Youth in Juvenile Facilities (2013):
7917

Change in Youth Incarceration Rate (1997-2013):
Down 60%

Ratio of Rates of Youth of Color to White Youth in Custody (2011):
2.9 to 1

Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (2013):
0

Change in Number of Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (1998-2013)
Down 100%

Age of Criminal Responsibility:
18

Colorado

226-300 per 100,000 Youth Incarceration Rate

Number of Youth in Juvenile Facilities (2013):
804

Change in Youth Incarceration Rate (1997-2013):
Down 51%

Ratio of Rates of Youth of Color to White Youth in Custody (2011):
2.1 to 1

Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (2013):
1

Change in Number of Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (1998-2013)
Down 96%

Age of Criminal Responsibility:
18

Connecticut

0-75 per 100,000 Youth Incarceration Rate

Number of Youth in Juvenile Facilities (2013):
279

Change in Youth Incarceration Rate (1997-2013):
Down 59%

Ratio of Rates of Youth of Color to White Youth in Custody (2011):
8.3 to 1

Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (2013):
88

Change in Number of Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (1998-2013)
Down 83%

Age of Criminal Responsibility:
18

District of Columbia

301+ per 100,000 Youth Incarceration Rate

Number of Youth in Juvenile Facilities (2013):
222

Change in Youth Incarceration Rate (1997-2013):
Down 16%

Ratio of Rates of Youth of Color to White Youth in Custody (2011):
4 to 1

Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (2013):
n/a

Change in Number of Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (1998-2013)
n/a

Age of Criminal Responsibility:
18

Delaware

151-225 per 100,000 Youth Incarceration Rate

Number of Youth in Juvenile Facilities (2013):
159

Change in Youth Incarceration Rate (1997-2013):
Down 49%

Ratio of Rates of Youth of Color to White Youth in Custody (2011):
4.3 to 1

Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (2013):
7

Change in Number of Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (1998-2013)
Down 65%

Age of Criminal Responsibility:
18

Florida

151-225 per 100,000 Youth Incarceration Rate

Number of Youth in Juvenile Facilities (2013):
2088

Change in Youth Incarceration Rate (1997-2013):
Down 65%

Ratio of Rates of Youth of Color to White Youth in Custody (2011):
1.6 to 1

Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (2013):
144

Change in Number of Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (1998-2013)
Down 75%

Age of Criminal Responsibility:
18

Georgia

151-225 per 100,000 Youth Incarceration Rate

Number of Youth in Juvenile Facilities (2013):
1494

Change in Youth Incarceration Rate (1997-2013):
Down 59%

Ratio of Rates of Youth of Color to White Youth in Custody (2011):
4 to 1

Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (2013):
92

Change in Number of Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (1998-2013)
Down 39%

Age of Criminal Responsibility:
17

Hawaii

76-150 per 100,000 Youth Incarceration Rate

Number of Youth in Juvenile Facilities (2013):
81

Change in Youth Incarceration Rate (1997-2013):
Down 40%

Ratio of Rates of Youth of Color to White Youth in Custody (2011):
n/a

Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (2013):
0

Change in Number of Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (1998-2013)
Down 100%

Age of Criminal Responsibility:
18

Iowa

151-225 per 100,000 Youth Incarceration Rate

Number of Youth in Juvenile Facilities (2013):
735

Change in Youth Incarceration Rate (1997-2013):
Down 31%

Ratio of Rates of Youth of Color to White Youth in Custody (2011):
3.5 to 1

Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (2013):
15

Change in Number of Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (1998-2013)
Up 66%

Age of Criminal Responsibility:
18

Idaho

151-225 per 100,000 Youth Incarceration Rate

Number of Youth in Juvenile Facilities (2013):
450

Change in Youth Incarceration Rate (1997-2013):
Up 85%

Ratio of Rates of Youth of Color to White Youth in Custody (2011):
1.7 to 1

Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (2013):
17

Change in Number of Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (1998-2013)
Up 70%

Age of Criminal Responsibility:
18

Illinois

151-225 per 100,000 Youth Incarceration Rate

Number of Youth in Juvenile Facilities (2013):
1617

Change in Youth Incarceration Rate (1997-2013):
Down 53%

Ratio of Rates of Youth of Color to White Youth in Custody (2011):
2.5 to 1

Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (2013):
68

Change in Number of Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (1998-2013)
Down 58%

Age of Criminal Responsibility:
18

Indiana

226-300 per 100,000 Youth Incarceration Rate

Number of Youth in Juvenile Facilities (2013):
1581

Change in Youth Incarceration Rate (1997-2013):
Down 37%

Ratio of Rates of Youth of Color to White Youth in Custody (2011):
2.2 to 1

Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (2013):
32

Change in Number of Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (1998-2013)
Down 64%

Age of Criminal Responsibility:
18

Kansas

226-300 per 100,000 Youth Incarceration Rate

Number of Youth in Juvenile Facilities (2013):
885

Change in Youth Incarceration Rate (1997-2013):
Down 29%

Ratio of Rates of Youth of Color to White Youth in Custody (2011):
1.8 to 1

Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (2013):
0

Change in Number of Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (1998-2013)
n/a

Age of Criminal Responsibility:
18

Kentucky

151-225 per 100,000 Youth Incarceration Rate

Number of Youth in Juvenile Facilities (2013):
774

Change in Youth Incarceration Rate (1997-2013):
Down 28%

Ratio of Rates of Youth of Color to White Youth in Custody (2011):
3.5 to 1

Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (2013):
14

Change in Number of Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (1998-2013)
n/a

Age of Criminal Responsibility:
18

Louisiana

151-225 per 100,000 Youth Incarceration Rate

Number of Youth in Juvenile Facilities (2013):
771

Change in Youth Incarceration Rate (1997-2013):
Down 72%

Ratio of Rates of Youth of Color to White Youth in Custody (2011):
4.1 to 1

Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (2013):
23

Change in Number of Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (1998-2013)
Down 74%

Age of Criminal Responsibility:
17

Massachusetts

76-150 per 100,000 Youth Incarceration Rate

Number of Youth in Juvenile Facilities (2013):
393

Change in Youth Incarceration Rate (1997-2013):
Down 63%

Ratio of Rates of Youth of Color to White Youth in Custody (2011):
5.7 to 1

Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (2013):
3

Change in Number of Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (1998-2013)
Down 77%

Age of Criminal Responsibility:
18

Maryland

151-225 per 100,000 Youth Incarceration Rate

Number of Youth in Juvenile Facilities (2013):
708

Change in Youth Incarceration Rate (1997-2013):
Down 53%

Ratio of Rates of Youth of Color to White Youth in Custody (2011):
4.3 to 1

Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (2013):
22

Change in Number of Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (1998-2013)
Down 71%

Age of Criminal Responsibility:
18

Maine

76-150 per 100,000 Youth Incarceration Rate

Number of Youth in Juvenile Facilities (2013):
162

Change in Youth Incarceration Rate (1997-2013):
Down 49%

Ratio of Rates of Youth of Color to White Youth in Custody (2011):
3.1 to 1

Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (2013):
0

Change in Number of Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (1998-2013)
n/a

Age of Criminal Responsibility:
18

Michigan

151-225 per 100,000 Youth Incarceration Rate

Number of Youth in Juvenile Facilities (2013):
1638

Change in Youth Incarceration Rate (1997-2013):
Down 56%

Ratio of Rates of Youth of Color to White Youth in Custody (2011):
4.2 to 1

Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (2013):
73

Change in Number of Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (1998-2013)
Down 65%

Age of Criminal Responsibility:
17

Minnesota

76-150 per 100,000 Youth Incarceration Rate

Number of Youth in Juvenile Facilities (2013):
867

Change in Youth Incarceration Rate (1997-2013):
Down 43%

Ratio of Rates of Youth of Color to White Youth in Custody (2011):
7 to 1

Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (2013):
13

Change in Number of Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (1998-2013)
Down 59%

Age of Criminal Responsibility:
18

Missouri

151-225 per 100,000 Youth Incarceration Rate

Number of Youth in Juvenile Facilities (2013):
1053

Change in Youth Incarceration Rate (1997-2013):
Down 25%

Ratio of Rates of Youth of Color to White Youth in Custody (2011):
4 to 1

Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (2013):
13

Change in Number of Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (1998-2013)
Down 88%

Age of Criminal Responsibility:
17

Mississippi

76-150 per 100,000 Youth Incarceration Rate

Number of Youth in Juvenile Facilities (2013):
243

Change in Youth Incarceration Rate (1997-2013):
Down 68%

Ratio of Rates of Youth of Color to White Youth in Custody (2011):
6.7 to 1

Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (2013):
8

Change in Number of Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (1998-2013)
Down 95%

Age of Criminal Responsibility:
18

Montana

151-225 per 100,000 Youth Incarceration Rate

Number of Youth in Juvenile Facilities (2013):
150

Change in Youth Incarceration Rate (1997-2013):
Down 50%

Ratio of Rates of Youth of Color to White Youth in Custody (2011):
3.8 to 1

Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (2013):
1

Change in Number of Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (1998-2013)
Down 99%

Age of Criminal Responsibility:
18

North Carolina

0-75 per 100,000 Youth Incarceration Rate

Number of Youth in Juvenile Facilities (2013):
543

Change in Youth Incarceration Rate (1997-2013):
Down 55%

Ratio of Rates of Youth of Color to White Youth in Custody (2011):
5 to 1

Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (2013):
68

Change in Number of Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (1998-2013)
Down 82%

Age of Criminal Responsibility:
16

North Dakota

226-300 per 100,000 Youth Incarceration Rate

Number of Youth in Juvenile Facilities (2013):
171

Change in Youth Incarceration Rate (1997-2013):
Down 37%

Ratio of Rates of Youth of Color to White Youth in Custody (2011):
4.9 to 1

Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (2013):
0

Change in Number of Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (1998-2013)
n/a

Age of Criminal Responsibility:
18

Nebraska

301+ per 100,000 Youth Incarceration Rate

Number of Youth in Juvenile Facilities (2013):
411

Change in Youth Incarceration Rate (1997-2013):
Down 45%

Ratio of Rates of Youth of Color to White Youth in Custody (2011):
4.2 to 1

Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (2013):
15

Change in Number of Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (1998-2013)
Down 48%

Age of Criminal Responsibility:
18

New Hampshire

0-75 per 100,000 Youth Incarceration Rate

Number of Youth in Juvenile Facilities (2013):
78

Change in Youth Incarceration Rate (1997-2013):
Down 58%

Ratio of Rates of Youth of Color to White Youth in Custody (2011):
2.7 to 1

Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (2013):
0

Change in Number of Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (1998-2013)
n/a

Age of Criminal Responsibility:
18

New Jersey

76-150 per 100,000 Youth Incarceration Rate

Number of Youth in Juvenile Facilities (2013):
888

Change in Youth Incarceration Rate (1997-2013):
Down 61%

Ratio of Rates of Youth of Color to White Youth in Custody (2011):
4.4 to 1

Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (2013):
8

Change in Number of Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (1998-2013)
Down 77%

Age of Criminal Responsibility:
18

New Mexico

226-300 per 100,000 Youth Incarceration Rate

Number of Youth in Juvenile Facilities (2013):
402

Change in Youth Incarceration Rate (1997-2013):
Down 48%

Ratio of Rates of Youth of Color to White Youth in Custody (2011):
2.7 to 1

Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (2013):
0

Change in Number of Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (1998-2013)
Down 100%

Age of Criminal Responsibility:
18

Nevada

226-300 per 100,000 Youth Incarceration Rate

Number of Youth in Juvenile Facilities (2013):
585

Change in Youth Incarceration Rate (1997-2013):
Down 32%

Ratio of Rates of Youth of Color to White Youth in Custody (2011):
1.7 to 1

Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (2013):
13*

Change in Number of Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (1998-2013)
n/a

Age of Criminal Responsibility:
18

New York

76-150 per 100,000 Youth Incarceration Rate

Number of Youth in Juvenile Facilities (2013):
1650

Change in Youth Incarceration Rate (1997-2013):
Down 65%

Ratio of Rates of Youth of Color to White Youth in Custody (2011):
3.6 to 1

Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (2013):
131

Change in Number of Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (1998-2013)
Down 59%

Age of Criminal Responsibility:
16

Ohio

151-225 per 100,000 Youth Incarceration Rate

Number of Youth in Juvenile Facilities (2013):
2283

Change in Youth Incarceration Rate (1997-2013):
Down 47%

Ratio of Rates of Youth of Color to White Youth in Custody (2011):
4.2 to 1

Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (2013):
20

Change in Number of Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (1998-2013)
Down 87%

Age of Criminal Responsibility:
18

Oklahoma

76-150 per 100,000 Youth Incarceration Rate

Number of Youth in Juvenile Facilities (2013):
498

Change in Youth Incarceration Rate (1997-2013):
Down 38%

Ratio of Rates of Youth of Color to White Youth in Custody (2011):
2.8 to 1

Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (2013):
4

Change in Number of Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (1998-2013)
Down 91%

Age of Criminal Responsibility:
18

Oregon

226-300 per 100,000 Youth Incarceration Rate

Number of Youth in Juvenile Facilities (2013):
1086

Change in Youth Incarceration Rate (1997-2013):
Down 26%

Ratio of Rates of Youth of Color to White Youth in Custody (2011):
2 to 1

Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (2013):
0

Change in Number of Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (1998-2013)
Down 100%

Age of Criminal Responsibility:
18

Pennsylvania

226-300 per 100,000 Youth Incarceration Rate

Number of Youth in Juvenile Facilities (2013):
2745

Change in Youth Incarceration Rate (1997-2013):
Down 31%

Ratio of Rates of Youth of Color to White Youth in Custody (2011):
7.1 to 1

Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (2013):
28

Change in Number of Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (1998-2013)
Down 71%

Age of Criminal Responsibility:
18

Rhode Island

151-225 per 100,000 Youth Incarceration Rate

Number of Youth in Juvenile Facilities (2013):
159

Change in Youth Incarceration Rate (1997-2013):
Down 63%

Ratio of Rates of Youth of Color to White Youth in Custody (2011):
2.8 to 1

Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (2013):
0

Change in Number of Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (1998-2013)
no change

Age of Criminal Responsibility:
18

South Carolina

151-225 per 100,000 Youth Incarceration Rate

Number of Youth in Juvenile Facilities (2013):
609

Change in Youth Incarceration Rate (1997-2013):
Down 62%

Ratio of Rates of Youth of Color to White Youth in Custody (2011):
3.9 to 1

Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (2013):
27

Change in Number of Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (1998-2013)
Down 87%

Age of Criminal Responsibility:
17

South Dakota

301+ per 100,000 Youth Incarceration Rate

Number of Youth in Juvenile Facilities (2013):
333

Change in Youth Incarceration Rate (1997-2013):
Down 37%

Ratio of Rates of Youth of Color to White Youth in Custody (2011):
4.2 to 1

Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (2013):
0

Change in Number of Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (1998-2013)
n/a

Age of Criminal Responsibility:
18

Tennessee

76-150 per 100,000 Youth Incarceration Rate

Number of Youth in Juvenile Facilities (2013):
618

Change in Youth Incarceration Rate (1997-2013):
Down 71%

Ratio of Rates of Youth of Color to White Youth in Custody (2011):
4.3 to 1

Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (2013):
8

Change in Number of Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (1998-2013)
Down 78%

Age of Criminal Responsibility:
18

Texas

151-225 per 100,000 Youth Incarceration Rate

Number of Youth in Juvenile Facilities (2013):
4329

Change in Youth Incarceration Rate (1997-2013):
Down 37%

Ratio of Rates of Youth of Color to White Youth in Custody (2011):
2.3 to 1

Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (2013):
69

Change in Number of Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (1998-2013)
Down 75%

Age of Criminal Responsibility:
17

Utah

151-225 per 100,000 Youth Incarceration Rate

Number of Youth in Juvenile Facilities (2013):
612

Change in Youth Incarceration Rate (1997-2013):
Down 20%

Ratio of Rates of Youth of Color to White Youth in Custody (2011):
3 to 1

Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (2013):
1

Change in Number of Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (1998-2013)
Down 95%

Age of Criminal Responsibility:
18

Virginia

151-225 per 100,000 Youth Incarceration Rate

Number of Youth in Juvenile Facilities (2013):
1563

Change in Youth Incarceration Rate (1997-2013):
Down 46%

Ratio of Rates of Youth of Color to White Youth in Custody (2011):
4.1 to 1

Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (2013):
9

Change in Number of Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (1998-2013)
Down 89%

Age of Criminal Responsibility:
18

Vermont

0-75 per 100,000 Youth Incarceration Rate

Number of Youth in Juvenile Facilities (2013):
27

Change in Youth Incarceration Rate (1997-2013):
Down 44%

Ratio of Rates of Youth of Color to White Youth in Custody (2011):
2 to1

Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (2013):
2

Change in Number of Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (1998-2013)
Down 87%

Age of Criminal Responsibility:
18

Washington

76-150 per 100,000 Youth Incarceration Rate

Number of Youth in Juvenile Facilities (2013):
1014

Change in Youth Incarceration Rate (1997-2013):
Down 54%

Ratio of Rates of Youth of Color to White Youth in Custody (2011):
2.2 to 1

Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (2013):
24

Change in Number of Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (1998-2013)
Down 77%

Age of Criminal Responsibility:
18

Wisconsin

151-225 per 100,000 Youth Incarceration Rate

Number of Youth in Juvenile Facilities (2013):
816

Change in Youth Incarceration Rate (1997-2013):
Down 59%

Ratio of Rates of Youth of Color to White Youth in Custody (2011):
6.6 to 1

Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (2013):
27

Change in Number of Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (1998-2013)
Up 23%

Age of Criminal Responsibility:
17

West Virginia

226-300 per 100,000 Youth Incarceration Rate

Number of Youth in Juvenile Facilities (2013):
462

Change in Youth Incarceration Rate (1997-2013):
Up 16%

Ratio of Rates of Youth of Color to White Youth in Custody (2011):
3.4 to 1

Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (2013):
0

Change in Number of Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (1998-2013)
n/a

Age of Criminal Responsibility:
18

Wyoming

301+ per 100,000 Youth Incarceration Rate

Number of Youth in Juvenile Facilities (2013):
165

Change in Youth Incarceration Rate (1997-2013):
Down 51%

Ratio of Rates of Youth of Color to White Youth in Custody (2011):
1.7 to 1

Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (2013):
0

Change in Number of Youth Under 18 in Adult Prisons (1998-2013)
Down 100%

Age of Criminal Responsibility:
18

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